Bulk carrier is a kind of merchant ship that specializes in transporting grain, coal, ore, cement and other bulk cargoes. It has the characteristics of large capacity, safety, efficiency and durability.
The first bulk carrier was built in 1852. Today, they account for 15% to 17% of the world’s merchant fleet . From small bulk carriers to large ore carriers capable of carrying a deadweight (DWT) of up to 400,000 tons. Most bulk carrier owners are from Greece, Japan and China, and more than a quarter are registered in Panama. 82% of bulk carriers are built in Asia, of which South Korea has the largest gross tonnage.
Types of Bulk Carrier:
Handysize bulk carrier:
With a carrying capacity of about 20,000 to 50,000 tons, of which ships with more than 40,000 tons are also called Handymax bulk carriers.
Lake bulk carrier:
Usually sails through the St. Lawrence Waterway in the Great Lakes region at the junction of the United States and Canada. It mainly carries coal, iron ore and grain. This type of ship must meet the navigation requirements of the St. Lawrence Waterway. The total length of the ship does not exceed 222.50 meters, and the width does not exceed 23.16 meters. This type of ship is generally about 30,000 tons, and most of them are equipped with loading and unloading equipment. 4-59 thousand tons Handy Supermax: This ship type generally has a draft of about 11 meters, which meets the needs of most large ports for in and out of full load, generally 5 cabins and 5 ports. The cargoes carried are mainly grains, coal and coke.
Panamax bulk carrier:
As the name implies, this type of ship refers to the largest bulk carrier that can pass through the Panama Canal under full load, that is, it mainly meets the relevant regulations for canal navigation with a total length of no more than 274.32 meters and a width of no more than 32.30 meters. The load capacity of this type of ship is generally between 6-75,000 tons. Kamsarmax type.: Because this type of ship is designed according to the largest bulk carrier that can enter the Guinea port of Kamsar, it is called the Kamsarmax type. The main technical parameters of Kamsarmax Bulk Carrier are: the deadweight is over 82,000MT, the length is 229 meters, the width is 32.36 meters, the depth is 19.9 meters, the structural draft is 14.35 meters, and the speed is 14.5 knots.
Post Panamax bulk carrier:
The deadweight is about 93,000 tons, and the ship is 38 meters wide. It is a ship type designed according to the Panama Canal expansion project, but this type of ship cannot pass the Panama Canal yet.
With a carrying capacity of about 150,000 tons. This type of ship is mainly used to transport iron ore. It is impossible to pass through the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal due to size restrictions. It needs to detour the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn. However, as the Suez Canal authorities have relaxed the draught restrictions for ships passing through the canal in recent years, most Capesize bulk carriers can now pass through the canal with full load.
Very Large Ore Carrier:
Only used for long-distance transportation of coal and iron ore. Coal is mainly used for North America, Australia, and Far East routes. Iron ore is mainly transported from South America, Australia to Japan, China and the Far East, the Mediterranean and Europe. Due to the trend of double-hulled tankers, many vlcc (Very Large Crude Oil Carrier) have been transformed into VLOCs to transport iron ore.