Why will LNG carriers become more important in future?

 

Why will LNG carriers become more important in future?

 

LNG carrier (Liquefied Natural Gas) is a special ship for transporting liquefied gas at a low temperature of minus 163 degrees Celsius.

It is a “three-high” product with high technology, high difficulty and high added value, and is a “super refrigerated vehicle at sea”.

The storage tank of the LNG ship is a special structure independent of the hull. In the design of the ship, the main factors considered are the materials that can adapt to the low temperature medium, and the treatment of volatile or flammable substances.

 

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Definition

LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) ship is a special ship for transporting liquefied gas at a low temperature of minus 163 degrees Celsius.

The storage tank of the LNG ship is a special structure independent of the hull.

In the design of the ship, the main factors considered are the materials that can adapt to the low temperature medium, and the treatment of volatile or flammable substances.

Vessel size is often limited by port dock and terminal conditions. 125,000 cubic meters is the most commonly used size, and the largest size in the construction of ships has reached 200,000 cubic meters.

The service life of LNG carriers is generally 40 to 45 years.

There are two types of storage tank systems for LNG ships in the world: self-supporting type and membrane type. There are two types of self-supporting type, A-type and B-type. A-type is rhombus or called IHISPB, and B-type is spherical.

 

 


Classification

At present, there are two types of storage tank systems for LNG ships in the world: self-supporting type and membrane type.

There are two types of self-supporting type, A type and B type, A type is rhombus or called IHISPB, B type is spherical.

The LNG receiving terminal has a dedicated wharf for berthing and unloading of LNG carriers.
Storage tanks are used to hold LNG unloaded from LNG carriers.

The regasification unit heats the liquefied natural gas into gas, which is then transported to the end user through pipelines.


The cold energy released during the regasification of LNG can be comprehensively utilized. Generally speaking, about 25% of the cold energy can be utilized.

 

 


Technology

In general, the membrane type LNG carrier is better than the MOSS type in terms of ship performance, but the MOSS type has the advantages of less cargo loading restrictions and other operational advantages.

Moreover, in the early LNG shipping, the MOSS type ship has a greater advantage .


The cargo tanks of membrane ships are divided into GTT No.96 type and Mark III type according to the different types of insulation and construction methods.

The insulation form of GTT No. 96 is insulation box; Mark III type is composed of insulation board and rigid insulation material.

In the welding of the main and sub-layer INVAR of the cargo tank, GTT No.96 type can use automatic welding in large quantities, and the welding quality is easy to control, while the Mark III type has more manual welding, and the welding quality is not easy to control.

 

 

LNG development

After the 1980s, as Japan and South Korea became the world’s first and second largest LNG importers, Japanese and South Korean shipyards successively introduced the construction technology of independent tank type and membrane type ships from European shipyards and LNG ship patent companies. and construction patents, and started building LNG ships in the early 1980s and early 1990s, respectively.

With the increase in the number of LNG ships built by Japanese and Korean shipyards, the share of LNG ships built by European and American shipyards in the LNG ship market has gradually decreased.

From 2001 to the end of October 2006, Korean shipyards built 55 of the 89 LNG ships built during this period, while Japanese shipyards built 28 and the remaining 6 were built by European shipyards. Facts have proved that the LNG ship construction center has shifted from Europe and the United States to Asia.

 

As Japan’s nuclear power plants come back into service and more Middle Eastern gas will be shipped to Asia, LNG ships will travel shorter distances and new ships will join the fleet, driving down freight rates.

Average freight rates for modern steamboats are estimated to fall to $108,000 per day in 2013, $92,000 per day in 2014, and $69,000 per day in 2015.

LNG carrier utilization will decline from the high levels seen in 2013. Spot rates will be below breakeven levels.

It is expected that due to the tight supply of new ships, the freight rate of LNG ships will be under certain pressure. But over the next five years, this will slowly change as more LNG export projects come online. [2]

 

 

 

Manufacturing situation

At present, the manufacture of LNG ships is mainly concentrated in South Korea.

The Korean shipping industry unanimously believes that Korean shipbuilding companies are in the international LNG ship market

A famous brand effect has been created in the field, and the LNG ship orders from all over the world are very concentrated in Korean shipyards.

For example, in 2006, a total of 35 LNG carrier contracts were signed around the world, of which Hyundai Heavy Industries, Samsung Heavy Industries and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Co.

This shows that Korean shipbuilding companies are in an absolute dominant position in the international LNG ship market.

 

According to the analysis of the Korean shipping industry, in 2007, the number of LNG ships ordered in the world will be as low as 40 and as many as 60.

Qatar, Nigeria, Angola, Spain and Australia have plans to order LNG ships this year. The “big three” among South Korean shipping companies are expected to take the absolute majority of these orders.

 

 

Market situation

Under the favorable market situation, South Korean ship companies began to “get together” in the field of LNG ship construction.

On the basis of the original only three, namely Hyundai Heavy Industries, Samsung Heavy Industries and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering, Hanjin Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. has entered the LNG ship construction market. , STX Shipbuilding, Hyundai Sanhu Heavy Industry and the newly formed Chengdong Shipbuilding 4 companies participated in the LNG ship market, which further pushed the market competition to a fever pitch.

 

In recent years, Hyundai Heavy Industries, Samsung Heavy Industries and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering have taken almost all orders for large-scale LNG ships in the international LNG ship market.

The above three shipping companies have accounted for more than 80% of the international LNG ship market.

In order to further improve the competitiveness, Hyundai Heavy Industries started to develop and innovate the flat-land construction of LNG ships on the basis of the success of flat-land construction of cruise ships and LPG ships. It is expected that the production and construction capacity of LNG ships will reach 14.

Samsung Heavy Industries and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering are also expanding their LNG carrier production capacity to 15 and 13, respectively.

 

From 1995 to 2000, Hanjin Heavy Industries successively built 4 LNG carriers for domestic LNG importers.

However, after 2000, Hanjin Heavy Industries shifted its focus to the field of large container ships, and stopped building and receiving orders for LNG ships.

 

Since last year, Hanjin Heavy Industries has stated that it will return to the LNG ship construction market, and plans to produce more than 10 LNG ships per year.

At present, it has undertaken an order for a 153,000-cubic-meter-class LNG carrier, and the construction was officially started on April 20.

 

 

Competition

The development goal of STX Shipbuilding Company is to surpass Hyundai Sanhu Heavy Industries and become a global shipbuilding company.

Therefore, it also lists the high value-added ship type LNG ship as one of the key shipbuilding types.

 

In 2005, STX Shipbuilding established a cooperative relationship with GTT Company of France, and GTT Company provided the design and development technology of LNG ships.

 

In April this year, STX Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. cooperated with West African companies to undertake orders for 4 LNG ships, each with an average price of 250 million US dollars.

 

STX Shipbuilding Company stated that it will further strengthen its offensive on LNG ship orders in the international ship market.

 

Sanhu Heavy Industry has been focusing on the construction of various types of cruise ships and chemical product carriers (PC) in the past.

With the support of Hyundai Heavy Industries, it has also begun to set foot in the construction of LNG ships.

The current production and construction capacity of LNG ships is three. The first LNG carrier to be built in the first quarter of this year has officially started construction.

 

Chengdong Shipbuilding was developed from a small shipyard, and its main business is to produce hull segmented structural parts for large shipyards.

In the past two years, it has developed rapidly through mergers and acquisitions and the support of local governments.

It has also established a cooperative relationship with the French GTT company to absorb the relevant technologies of GTT’s LNG ships, and will also participate in the competition in the LNG ship market in the next step.

 

South Korea is currently the country with the strongest LNG ship construction equipment and actual construction capabilities in the world, but the core technology of its LNG ship comes from the French GTT company.

Therefore, for each LNG ship built, the Korean shipyard will pay GTT about approx. $10 million in royalties.


Therefore, the Korean government and shipping companies are determined to work together to overcome technical difficulties and develop key technologies for LNG ships that belong to South Korea.

 

 

 


Summary

Substituting gas for oil In such industries as building materials, metallurgy, medicine, light industry, etc., enterprises currently widely use liquefied petroleum gas, light diesel oil and heavy oil as industrial fuels. Upgrading also affects the improvement of air quality.

 

If an industrial enterprise using fuel oil implements the project of replacing oil with gas, its transformation project will be less, less investment, quicker effect, and it is completely feasible technically.

However, the oil-to-gas project uses a large amount of gas and is stable in gas consumption, which is also the initial stage of natural gas utilization market development. The main supporting project.

Urban gasification City gas mainly includes residential gas, commercial gas, public utilities and other industries, small and medium-sized industrial gas, and motor vehicle replacement fuel gas.

 

City gas is an important urban infrastructure and one of the important symbols to measure urban modernization.